Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Contents

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: DIAGNOSTIC TESTS TO EVALUATE FETAL WELL-BEING

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: NEWBORN SCREENING PROCEDURES

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: OXYGEN THERAPY

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

I. PURPOSE—to relieve hypoxia and provide adequate tissue oxygenation.

II. CLINICAL INDICATIONS:

A. Any client who is likely to have significant shunt from:

  • Fluid in the alveoli.
    a. Pulmonary edema.
    b. Pneumonia.
    c. Near-drowning.
    d. Chest trauma.
  • Collapsed alveoli (atelectasis).
    a. Airway obstruction.
    (1)Any client who is unconscious.
    (2)Choking.
    b. Failure to take deep breaths.
    (1)Pain (rib fracture).
    (2)Paralysis of the respiratory muscles (spine injury).
  • Depression of the respiratory center (head injury, drug overdose).
    c. Collapse of an entire lung (pneumothorax).
    3. Other gases in the alveoli.
    a. Smoke inhalation.
    b. Toxic inhalations.
    c. Carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Respiratory arrest.

B. Cardiac arrest.
C. Shock.
D. Shortness of breath.
E. Signs of respiratory insufficiency.
F. Breathing fewer than 10 times per minute.
G. Chest pain.
H. Stroke.
I. Anemia.
J. Fetal decelerations during labor.

III. PRECAUTIONS:

A. Clients with COPD should receive oxygen at low flow rates (usually 1 to 3 L/min), to prevent inhibition of hypoxic respiratory drive.

B. Excessive amounts of oxygen for prolonged periods of time will cause retrolental fibroplasia and blindness in infants who are premature.

C. Oxygen delivered without humidification will result in drying and irritation of respiratory mucosa, decreased ciliary action, and thickening of respiratory secretions.

D. Oxygen supports combustion, and fire is a potential hazard during its administration.

  • Ground electrical equipment.
  • Prohibit smoking.
  • Institute measures to decrease static electricity.

E. High flow rates of oxygen delivered by ventilator or cuffed tracheostomy and endotracheal tubes can produce signs of oxygen toxicity in 24 to 48 hours:

  • Cough, sore throat, decreased vital capacity, and substernal discomfort.
  • Pulmonary manifestations due to:
    a. Atelectasis.
    b. Exudation of protein fluids into alveoli.
    c. Damage to pulmonary capillaries.
    d. Interstitial hemorrhage.

IV. OXYGEN ADMINISTRATION:

A. Oxygen is dispensed from cylinder or piped-in system.
B. Methods of delivering oxygen:

1. Nasal prongs/cannula.

  • Comfortable and simple, and allows client to move about in bed.
  • Delivers 25% to 40% oxygen at flow rates of 4 to 6 L/min.
  • Difficult to keep in position unless client is alert and cooperative.

2. Jet mixing Venturi mask.

  • Allows for accurate delivery of prescribed concentration of oxygen.
  • Delivers 24% to 50% oxygen at flow rates of 4 to 8 L/min.
  • Useful in long-term treatment of COPD.

3. Simple O2 face mask.

  • Poorly tolerated—used for short periods of time; feeling of “suffocation.”
  • Delivers 50% to 60% oxygen at flow rates of 8 to 12 L/min.
  • ignificant rebreathing of carbon dioxide at low oxygen flow rates.
  • Hot—may produce pressure sores around nose and mouth.

4. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mask.

  • Increases pulmonary volume; opens alveoli; may improve ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatch.
  • Used with sleep apnea with or without O2 source.

5. Non-rebreather reservoir mask.

  • Reservoir bag has one-way valve preventing the client from exhaling back into the bag.
  • Oxygen flow rate prevents collapse of bag during inhalation.
  • Delivers 90% to 95% oxygen at flow rates of 10 to 12 L/min.
  • Ideal for severe hypoxia, but client may complain of feelings of suffocation.

6. T-tube.

  • Provides humidification and enriched oxygen mixtures to tracheostomy or endotracheal tube.
  • Delivers up to 100% oxygen at flow rates at least twice the minute ventilation.

V. INTUBATION AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION:

A. Indications:

  • Apnea.
  • Inadequate upper airway or inability to clear secretions.
  • Worsening respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 greater than 50 mm Hg) and hypoventilation.
  • PaO2 less than 55 mm Hg.
  • Absent gag reflex.
  • Heavy sedation or paralysis.
  • Imminent respiratory failure (respiratory rate less than 8 to 10 breaths/min or greater than 30 to 40 breaths/min).
  • Chest wall trauma.
  • Profound shock.
  • Controlled hyperventilation (e.g., increased ICP).

B. Types of positive-pressure ventilators:

  • Pressure cycled—gas flows into the client until a predetermined airway pressure is reached. Tidal volume is not constant.
  • Time cycled—gas flows for a certain percentage of time during ventilatory cycle.
  • Volume cycled—most common ventilators used; tidal volume is determined, and a fixed volume is delivered with each breath.

C. Ventilator modes:

  • Controlled—machine delivers a breath at a fixed rate regardless of client’s effort or demands.
  • Assist-controlled—machine senses a client’s efforts to breathe and delivers a fixed tidal volume with each effort.
  • Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)— breaths are delivered by the machine, but the client may also breathe spontaneously without machine assistance.
  • Pressure support—client breathes spontaneously and determines ventilator rate. Tidal volume determined by inflation pressure and client’s lung-thorax compliance.

D. Minute ventilation—determined by the respiratory rate and the tidal volume. A respiratory rate of 10 to 15 breaths/min is considered appropriate. Close monitoring is required to achieve desired (not necessarily normal) PaCO2.

E. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)—maintenance of positive airway pressure at the end of expiration. Applied in the form of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the client breathing spontaneously or continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV) for the client receiving mechanical breaths. Applied in 3- to 5-cm H2O increments. Levels greater than 10 to 15 cm H2O are associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and hemodynamic compromise.

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: HANDS-ON NURSING CARE

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: Positioning the Client

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Positioning of the client for specific surgical conditions is detailed in Positioning the Client for Specific Surgical Conditions . Various common client positions are illustrated in Common client positions. (A) Dorsal recumbent (back-lying), legs up .

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: Commonly Used Tubes

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Review of the Use of Common Tubes provides a review of the use of common tubes.
A chest drainage system is illustrated in Chest drainage system.

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: Colostomy Care

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Emptying Colostomy Appliance and Changing Colostomy Appliance provide information on emptying and changing a colostomy appliance.

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: Basic Prosthetic Care

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Information on the care of dentures is provided in
Care of DenturesCaring for an Artificial Eye lists steps in caring for an artificial
eye, and information on caring for a hearing aid is provided in Caring for a Hearing Aid.

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: Bladder Training

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Bladder Training provides information on bladder training.

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Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care: Bowel Training

Focus topic: Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Bowel Training provides information on bowel training.

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

SCEENSHOT

SCEENSHOT

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

Reduction of Risk Potential Common Procedures: Diagnostic Tests, Oxygen Therapy, and Hands-on Nursing Care

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